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AkathisiaAnxiety, restlessness and hyperkinesia qualify a person with this movement disorder. Causes, motor behavior and treatment of akathisia.

Neurology .- As the akinesia , akathisia is the manifestation of an extrapyramidal symptom (problem in dopaminergic neurotransmission). This motor disorder called akathisia is characterized by symptoms of anxiety attacks accompanied by restlessness and psychomotor problems. The person affected by this disorder is compelled psychomotor and feel the constant need to move, sit, stand, move, move your legs … the cause of akathisia is usually the use of neuroleptic drugs
How does a person akathisia?

Akathisia is not an expression of anxious type body. As mentioned, restlessness, inability to sit still and internal stress are characteristic of this movement disorder. Among the psychomotor manifestations of this disorder may be observed:

The motor restlessness. Involuntary, repetitive movements, rocking of the trunk …
Hyperactivity disorder, hyperactivity or hyperkinesis.
Motor or tasicinesia instability.
Dystonia , muscle contraction (twists, kinks, poor posture of the body).
Disorders of behavior and thought disorder (depression, hostility, suicidal tendencies).

What is the cause akathisia appears?

Today the exact cause of this instability drive.

“It tends to be the result of the use of treatment with neuroleptic drugs (both typical and atypical) of presynaptic monoamine deplectores like tetrabenazine and antidepressants such as selective inhibitors of serotonin reuptake” (EM Kahn 1992).

There are traces which suggest that dopaminergic neurons in the anterior segment area may be involved.
Some diseases associated with akathisia

Akathisia can occur in cases of:

EP (Parkinson’s disease). Depending on dopamine therapy used.
Schizophrenia . A psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, emotional imbalance or evasion of reality.
Restless Legs Syndrome. Disorder characterized by internal tensions and painful sensations in the legs.
Anxiety Disorders .
Withdrawal syndrome .

Treatment of akathisia

Lower doses or stop taking the drug is the usual treatment. If, despite the interruption of treatment is not noticeable improvement, there are other treatments that are commonly used two types of drugs, anticholinergic and antiadrenergic:

Clonidine (agonist alpha-2).
Anticholinergics (trihexyphenidyl).
Propranolol, benzodiazepines, or amantadine.

The cerebellum is the nerve center of the brain and its function is to control motor skills. Cerebellar disorders cause abnormalities in the amplitude, speed and power of movement.

Neurodegenerative diseases

Neurodegenerative diseasesDementia diseases are due to neuronal death and are the result of stroke or defects during the cell cycle. Causes and symptoms of dementia.

Neurology .- The “ON” or neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system are brain damage caused by neuronal apoptosis (death of neurons) derived from a CVA (stroke) or defective process of protein during the cell cycle. The etiology or causes of dementia are unknown today and brain damage of these neurodegenerative disorders causes a series of symptoms that lead to brain damage.
What are neurodegenerative diseases?

These abnormalities lead to progressive deterioration of the CNS (central nervous system), ie, loss of brain function, more specifically the cerebral cortex, resulting in severe cognitive problems. Memory, thinking, language or behavior of a person is severely affected.

Like other nervous system diseases, diseases of dementia generate disability, dependency, physical and psychological pain (both the person suffering and their families).

Today, this type of neurological disease has no cure, is irreversible.
Causes of dementia, neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging

Today, the etiology of neurodegeneration is not known. Certain neurodegenerative diseases like Huntington’s or familial spastic paraparesis, show a genetic basis, but the majority of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease or Alzheimer’s , PD or Parkinson’s disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, are sporadic and genetic contribution is minimal.

Dementia is a progressive disease that is, that worsens over time and most of the causes of dementia are not preventable.

“The increase in life expectancy in our society, has brought an increase in these chronic diseases in the elderly population who have become the third largest health problem in our country”
When do symptoms of dementia?

Dementia symptoms begin to appear when the neurons are not affected and can not supplement the work of damaged neurons.

During the progression of the disease are emerging a series of complexities such as:

Self-injury. Where the person ends up assaulting patienter itself.
The delirium. A disorder where the person’s brain stops functioning as it should. Attention problems, disorders of consciousness, memory impairment , impaired thinking, emotions …
Trauma. Harm that is done the person as a result of motor incoordination or muscle degeneration in your body.
The disorientation of both time and space. Confusions like not knowing what time it is, on what day we are, where we are, how to get home or to a particular place.
Cortical disorders. As apraxia or aphasia .
Functional problems. They have difficulty performing everyday things such as washing, dressing, eating, cleaning … and show trouble walking .
Behavioral problems. Violence, paranoia, theft, apathy, hallucinations, akathisia or vagrancy.


AtaxiaNeuronal apoptosis in spinal cord and cerebellum causing muscle wasting. Causes, treatment and symptoms of ataxia. Friedreich’s ataxia.

Neurology .- The ataxia is a neurological disorder that is characterized by a progressive disease that leads to imbalance in walking and in showing the difficulty in performing and fine rhythmic movements. Trouble walking, muscle atrophy, nystagmus … your symptoms are caused by neuronal apoptosis in the CNS where their causes may be due to a tumor, infection, trauma, be inherited or a deficiency of vitamin B12.

What is ataxia and what are its causes?

Ataxia is a hereditary disease, specifically a gene abnormality called FXN (frataxin) located on chromosome 9 that affects the central nervous system (CNS) causing problems with speech and muscle wasting in which a person should only take a gene defective from each parent to eventually develop the disease. But there are more causes responsible for the progress of the disease:

Deficiency of vitamin B12.
Tumor .

Among the neurological disorders, Friedreich’s ataxia is caused by degeneration of nerve tissue in the spinal cord and cerebellum (responsible for controlling voluntary movements ).

Ataxia Friedreich’s ataxia symptoms

This progressive neuronal apoptosis involves loss of movement coordination, ie, impaired motor coordination with a broad base of support “as drunk.” Symptoms of the disease usually manifests at an early age (from which one begins to walk) or develop very slowly, “incognito” hiding like normal cells and subsequently externalized:

Trouble walking. This is the first symptom to appear and as mentioned, being a progressive disorder, ataxia slowly gets worse and spreads to other parts of the body and the head, arms or trunk.
Muscular atrophy. As time goes on increasing muscle weakness and atrophy where it ends in deformity and muscle weakness are more noticeable in the feet and hands. The lack of coordination and various muscle problems leading to damage to the spine such as scoliosis.
Loss of reflexes in the tendons. This is exacerbated areflexia especially in knees, ankles and wrists together.
Gradual loss of the sense of touch. This is an injury that usually begins attacking the extremities (arms and legs) and slowly spread to other areas of the body.
Dysarthria ( language disorders ). One of the consequences of ataxia in speech problems where it becomes a dysarthric speech is, difficulty to properly move the muscles of the face and joints.
Heart disease. There are often palpitations, breathing difficulties and chest pains leading to cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis or heart failure.
Nystagmus. Characterized by involuntary and uncontrolled movement of the eyes that can seriously affect vision.

The ataxia is easily fatigued and other common symptoms of the disease are vomiting, tinnitus and dizziness.
Treatment for ataxia

Today as in the case of many neurodegenerative diseases, there is no cure for this autosomal recessive disease, although there are treatments for many of its symptoms. Currently the treatment of ataxia include:

Advisory services.
Speech Therapy.
Wheelchairs and other orthopedic aids.

“This loss of coordination can be caused by several different medical and neurological conditions: for this reason it is important that a person with ataxia seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause of the symptoms and get appropriate treatment” (National Ataxia Foundation).